The food industry is a highly competitive and constantly evolving landscape where marketing plays a crucial role in driving consumer demand. And while sometimes it can be a fun place filled with silly drinks aimed at kids, there are also plenty of instances where marketers have stumbled and fallen after taking what seemed to be a great idea and running it right into the ground.
There have been some notable failures that have resulted in significant losses for companies and tarnished their brand reputations over the years. From ill-conceived product launches to misleading advertising campaigns, the food industry has seen its fair share of marketing failures.
By examining these failures, we can gain valuable insights into what not to do in marketing and understand the importance of aligning marketing strategies with consumer expectations and delivering on promises.
From the cautionary tales of Crystal Pepsi to the infamous “New Coke” debacle and beyond, these marketing failures provide valuable lessons for food industry professionals to avoid similar pitfalls and build successful marketing campaigns.
Crystal Pepsi or Clear Gravy?
Why not start with what is widely considered to be the worst beverage misstep in soda pop history?
Crystal Pepsi was introduced by PepsiCo in 1992 as a spin-off of its classic Pepsi brand. It was advertised as a “pure” and “natural” cola, free of the caramel coloring that gave regular Pepsi its characteristic brown color. The marketing campaign for Crystal Pepsi was edgy and provocative, featuring a catchy commercial set to Van Halen’s “Right Now” and showcasing an astronaut, a rhino, and a woman drinking the translucent elixir. The commercial proclaimed, “Right now, we’re all thirsty for something different. Introducing Crystal Pepsi.”
The launch of Crystal Pepsi generated a lot of buzz, as new products often do, and initial excitement among consumers who seemed eager for a new option. Many were intrigued by the concept of a clear cola, and the beverage quickly gained popularity, especially among younger consumers. Crystal Pepsi was even featured on CBS Evening News and parodied on Saturday Night Live, adding to its cultural significance.
However, despite its early success, Crystal Pepsi’s sales quickly plummeted, and less than a year after its launch, the product was pulled from the shelves. It was later dubbed one of the biggest product failures of all time by TIME Magazine.
Crushed Consumer Expectations
There were several factors that contributed to the failure of Crystal Pepsi. One of the main issues was the taste – which is more of a marketing factor than you’d initially expect. While the concept of a clear cola was intriguing, the taste of Crystal Pepsi did not live up to consumer expectations. Many found it to be too sweet and lacking the bold flavor of traditional colas. This was due to the absence of the caramel coloring, which not only impacted the color but also the taste of the product. Consumers who were expecting a familiar cola taste were left disappointed, and the taste mismatch ultimately led to a decline in sales.
Another similar factor in Crystal Pepsi’s downfall was the rush to launch before the recipe was perfected. In their eagerness to capitalize on the novelty of a clear cola, PepsiCo may have overlooked the importance of thoroughly testing and refining the product to ensure that it met consumer preferences. The failure to deliver a satisfying taste experience proved to be a critical flaw in the marketing strategy.
Finally, PepsiCo faced challenges in managing consumer expectations for the newly launched product. While the marketing campaign portrayed Crystal Pepsi as a “pure” and “natural” cola, some consumers questioned the validity of these claims (see: SNL’s Clear Gravy bit above) leading to skepticism and disappointment when the product did not meet their perceived expectations of a healthier or more premium cola.
Key Takeaways from Crystal Pepsi
Crystal Pepsi serves as a cautionary tale of a marketing failure in the food and beverage industry. Despite its initial excitement and popularity, the product’s taste mismatch, rushed launch, and misaligned consumer expectations ultimately led to its downfall. Crystal Pepsi underscores the importance of thoroughly understanding your consumer preferences, ensuring product quality from launch into the distant future, and managing consumer expectations in marketing campaigns.
Unpacking, Literally, the McDonald’s Arch Deluxe
Now onto something we can sink our teeth into.
The Arch Deluxe was introduced by McDonald’s in 1996 as a premium burger with a slightly higher price point compared to its regular menu items. The burger featured a quarter-pound beef patty, bacon, lettuce, tomato, cheese, onions, and a “secret” mustard and mayonnaise sauce, all served on a bakery-style bun – almost all of which were new to McDonald’s menu, meaning individual owners of each restaurant had to source entirely new ingredients to build the burgers properly.
The marketing campaign for the Arch Deluxe positioned it as a burger for adults who appreciated finer flavors and wanted a more sophisticated dining experience at McDonald’s. Advertisements featured a luxurious setting, with a high-end restaurant feel and the tagline “The burger with the grown-up taste.”
McDonald’s invested heavily in promoting the Arch Deluxe, spending over $100 million on advertising and marketing efforts, including TV commercials, print ads, and extensive in-store promotions. The company hoped that the Arch Deluxe would attract a new segment of adult customers and boost sales.
However, the Arch Deluxe failed to meet expectations and fell flat with consumers. Despite the significant investment in marketing and promotion, the burger did not resonate with the target audience as McDonald’s had hoped. It fell flatter than a McDonald’s patty. Ouch.
Discovering the Arch Deluxe’s Downfall
There were several key reasons for the failure of the Arch Deluxe.
One of the main issues was the mismatch between the premium positioning of the Arch Deluxe and McDonald’s overall brand image. McDonald’s had long been associated with affordable and family-friendly fast food, and the attempt to shift to a more sophisticated and upscale positioning with the Arch Deluxe did not align with the brand’s established identity. Consumers found it difficult to reconcile the premium price and footprint of the Arch Deluxe with the perception of McDonald’s as a budget-friendly fast-food chain, leading to confusion and lack of interest.
Another factor was again the taste of the Arch Deluxe. (See how important taste can be in marketing?) Despite its “grown-up” positioning, the burger did not deliver a significantly different taste compared to McDonald’s regular menu items. The “secret” mustard and mayonnaise sauce did not connect with consumers, and some found the flavor to be underwhelming and not worth the higher price point.
Key Takeaways from the Arch Deluxe Debacle
At the end of the day, the marketing campaign for the Arch Deluxe was criticized for being overly complex and confusing. The advertisements with the high-end restaurant setting and the tagline “The burger with the grown-up taste” did not effectively communicate the unique selling proposition of the Arch Deluxe or why it was worth the premium price. The messaging failed to resonate with consumers and did not create a compelling reason to choose the Arch Deluxe over other options on the menu.
Additionally, despite significant investment in advertising and promotion, the burger failed to capture the attention and loyalty of consumers. The mismatch between the premium positioning and McDonald’s brand image, lack of differentiation in taste, and confusing marketing messaging were key factors that contributed to the failure of the Arch Deluxe. The story of the Arch Deluxe underscores the importance of aligning product positioning with brand identity, delivering on consumer expectations.
Back to Beverages: New Coke
And for one more dive back into the cautionary world of marketing blunders, we look at New Coke, from 1985, when Coca-Cola, one of the most beloved and iconic brands in America, made a bold move by introducing a new formula for its flagship product. This decision turned out to be a monumental failure (obviously, that’s why we’re talking about it), resulting in a swift and embarrassing retreat.
So, what exactly was New Coke?
New Coke was the result of Coca-Cola’s attempt to keep up with changing consumer preferences and fend off its main rival, PepsiCo. Pepsi had been gaining market share with its sweeter taste, and Coca-Cola wanted to counter this threat by creating a “better” version of its classic formula. On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola announced the launch of New Coke, a sweeter and smoother version of the original formula, which was touted as a “bolder,” “rounder,” and “harmonious” taste.
However, the introduction of New Coke did not go as planned. And unlike Crystal Pepsi which had an initial positive bump, the backlash from consumers was swift and intense for New Coke. Coke drinkers expressed their disappointment and anger through phone calls, letters, and actual protests.
Many consumers felt a deep emotional connection to the original Coca-Cola, which was a part of their cultural identity and childhood memories. The sudden change in taste was seen as a betrayal, and loyal customers felt that their beloved brand had abandoned them.
SOS: Save Our Soda!
The failure of New Coke can be attributed to several key reasons. First, Coca-Cola underestimated the emotional attachment consumers had to the original formula. The company failed to understand the deep-rooted emotional connection that consumers had with the brand, and the role that nostalgia and tradition played in their purchasing decisions.
Additionally, Coca-Cola failed to conduct thorough market research and testing to gauge consumer preferences and acceptance of the new taste. The decision to change the formula was based on internal taste tests, which did not accurately reflect consumer sentiments.
The swift and decisive public backlash forced Coca-Cola to react quickly and with intense intent. Within just 79 days of the launch, Coca-Cola announced that it was bringing back the original formula, now called Coca-Cola Classic, and New Coke was discontinued. The entire episode was a major embarrassment for Coca-Cola – though they proudly list the failure on their website – resulting in financial losses, damage to the brand’s reputation, and valuable lessons learned about the importance of understanding consumer preferences and emotions.
Taking More Than Bad Tasting Coke Away
The marketing lessons from the New Coke debacle are numerous and valuable.
First, it highlights the importance of understanding consumer emotions and the role of nostalgia in brand loyalty. Emotional connections with a brand can be a powerful driver of consumer behavior, and companies need to be mindful of these emotions when making changes to their products or marketing strategies.
Secondly, thorough market research and testing are crucial before making significant changes to a product or brand. Relying solely on internal taste tests or assumptions can be risky and lead to costly mistakes.
Finally, listening to customer feedback and being responsive to consumer sentiments is crucial. When consumers express dissatisfaction, it is essential to take their feedback seriously and take swift action to rectify the situation.
New Coke remains a warning in the world of marketing, reminding us of the importance of understanding consumer emotions, conducting thorough market research, and being responsive to customer feedback. The failure of New Coke serves as a reminder that even the most established and beloved brands can make costly mistakes if they do not truly understand and respect their consumers.
This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, the food industry has seen its fair share of marketing failures. Ranging from ill-conceived product launches to misleading advertising campaigns, there are plenty to pick from. Crystal Pepsi, the McDonald’s Arch Deluxe, and New Coke are meant to serve as notable examples of marketing failures in the food and beverage industry that provide valuable lessons for marketers to learn from.
These failures serve as cautionary tales for food industry professionals to avoid similar pitfalls in their marketing strategies. By thoroughly understanding consumer preferences, ensuring product quality, managing consumer expectations, and aligning marketing efforts with the overall brand image, marketers can increase their chances of success in the highly competitive food industry. While marketing failures can be costly in terms of financial losses and brand reputation, but they also provide valuable lessons and opportunities for growth and improvement.
Anybody down for a taste test?